Viewing Race

Viewing Race -

Taking Action against Racial Discrimination in Minnesota

Taking Action against Racial Discrimination in Minnesota

Even though times have changed and all people are supposed to be created equally, there are many people that are still treated wrongfully just because of the color of their skin.  While things have gotten better over the years, it’s obvious that we still have a long way to go.  One way you can help stop racism and get compensated for the pain you have experienced, or damage that has been done is to take action with the help of a lawyer.

There are many Minnesota law firms that handle and specialize in Racial Discrimination cases.  One of the most common types of racial discrimination cases are caused by racial discrimination in the workplace which negatively impact a person’s employment.  There are also many racial discrimination cases that impact a person’s housing, loans, business, medical service, and other factors of life.  If you feel like you have been discriminated against in some way which caused a negative impact on your life, reach out to a Minnesota law firm that handles racial discrimination cases today and see if there is any action that can be taken to serve justice.  Lawyers are straight up with these types of cases and usually work for a portion of the amount paid by the defendant.

Communicating with your employees in good times and bad

Communicating with your employees in good times and bad

Keeping up good channels of communication with your staff is important at all times, but never more so than when your company is experiencing extremes of fortune. Whether there is good news to share or challenging times ahead, your staff will reward you with their loyalty and hard work for keeping them informed about things that affect them.


Let the good times roll

When performance is great or you have good news to tell, it’s vital that this is shared this with your whole organisation. You might think that good news travels fast, but you’d be surprised how long it can take for glad tidings to filter out through your teams, particularly if your organisation is large and complex.


Newsletters may have a long history, but they’re still an effective way of communicating



Your staff work hard for you. From the cleaners through to the CEO, everyone has a role to play in the success of the organisation. Good performance management can help to make the connections for employees between what each individual does and the contribution it makes to the overall success of the company. However, if your employees are the last to know when there’s a positive development in the organisation’s fortunes they can lose sight of the value that they bring to that success.


Employees who feel valued and who value what the organisation achieves are much more likely to give their commitment and loyalty to their work. If they can link their individual daily efforts to what’s being achieved as a whole, motivation goes up and so does performance. They’ll be happier and the organisation will get better. Everyone wins!


There may be trouble ahead

The axiom that good news travels fast may not, as suggested above, ring true when it comes to people learning good news about your business. On the other hand, bad news spreads like a wildfire in a dried-out forest and is usually subject to many distortions and twists of misinformation along the way.



Ensuring there’s a web of clear communication before bad times strike will stand you in good stead



The benefits of improved commitment, dedication and hard work that come from people seeing how their work has had a positive impact on organisational performance are magnified when inverted. The damage that can be done to performance, productivity and staff morale through gossip, rumours and feelings of being shut out can be enormous. Time that could be spent working is often spent speculating instead and while that can compound an already difficult time in the organisation it can be devastating on trust in your workplace.


Telling people the truth – even if it’s uncomfortable – as openly and as early as possible is always the best way. While people may be worried, upset or distracted, putting out a rallying cry for everyone to pull together at a difficult time to support each other is likely to minimise the impact of the rumour mill and get your staff on your side.


Keep them coming

The best way to make sure you’re communicating with your staff through the hard times and the good is to establish an open channel between your organisation and its employees. Regular internal communication can help people feel engaged and involved with the company and has a positive impact on commitment. Regular newsletters, an active intranet and employee engagement systems that are well established make it easier to get your message across, whether that’s good, bad or just plain informative.



Telling your staff honestly and openly what is going on within the company will win you loyalty and commitment from employees. Having a regular, open channel of communication that enables news to be disseminated quickly and makes staff aware of their valuable place as part of the company’s success will pay dividends in how your staff rewards you with their hard work. It may make sense to utilise the services of Employer communications experts such as SAS London to help with your communications.



Image Credits: born1945 and photophilde.

Eliminate Bullying as Soon as Possible

Eliminate Bullying as Soon as Possible

In modern days, school shootings and bullying have almost become a trend.  There have been many efforts such as education and elimination of assault weapons that have tried to eliminate these risks for children going to public schools.  There’s nothing worse than not being able to feel safe dropping you child off at a public school while feeling safe.  We all used to attend public schools and feel very safe (although bored) but didn’t have to worry about a child coming in to eliminate us.  Beside the new fatal trend that we all fear for our children, there are also children that consistently bully the youth of ours.

Bullying in public schools has always been an issue.  There have been several public attempts eliminate bullying in public schools but many do not work.  Because of bullying and other crimes made by children, there is a huge need for bullying and harassment investigation.  These investigations have solved many cases of children being abused by other children and have brought many schools to peaceful situations.  There are many schools across the nation that have issues with bullying.  Without the necessary education, the students, nor the teachers know how to deal with it.  If your local public schools have a problem with bullying, hire a specialist to help out with the problem.

Events like the Super Bowl 2013 unite people together

Sports is one area where all the people in the world become united leaving behind their race , ethnicity , nationality etc. People join together and enjoy the event in harmony and spirit . Lets take the Super Bowl for example . Everyone around the globe enjoy this big game . Regardless of the diversity everyone join and watch the game and cheer for their favorite teams . If their teams loose they show their united feelings and if their teams win they cheer together . People from various neighborhoods take a time off and gather together and watch the show and share their happiness . It brings millions of people together on the Big Super Bowl Sunday .Even the commercials during the game are targeted towards all the people watching the game . Its again the time of this big event happening on February 14th and the Super Bowl commercials 2013 are already under the production process . People just love to come together and watch the game on their television .

So to promote universal unity among people such mass games of entertainment should be encouraged . As such games relieve people of their daily tension and bring them together under one roof of peace and happiness . Whatever sport event it is – be it the Soccer world cup , NBA , MLB or the cricket world cup , it only helps in growing the unity of people in a subtle manner ( You might have surely noticed the way strangers in a stadium hug and cry in happiness when their team win ) . It is these such moments of joy that really brings out the brotherly hood in us .

Studying in high ethnic diversity

Benefits of studying in high ethnic diversity universities
Studying in high ethnic diversity universities has major positive impact on students. As a graduate you will be required to work with other people from diverse ethnic backgrounds. You will therefore be better placed to deliver if you have acquired interpersonal and communication skills by interacting with such kind of people before. The following are some of the benefits acquired by studying in such universities.

Acquiring leadership skills
To become a leader, a person is expected to be able to relate well with people of different ethnicity .This is possible if a person can accommodate different perspectives of looking at issues. They must also be able to respect all people and their cultures.

Complex and critical thinking
Relating with people from different backgrounds in the classrooms and out of class activities enable a person to think critically and broaden the mind.

Compatibility with the society and understanding differences
It enables a graduate to be able to enter and fit in any society. The person is able to live in a society with ethnic diversity because they understand the cultural differences and beliefs that exists and they are able to adapt accordingly.

Motivation and self-confidence
Living with people from diverse backgrounds and different ambitions help students to be motivated to achieve their goals in life as well as making them confidence in whatever they do.

Citizenship and patriotism
It enables students to overcome ethnic loyalties. It fosters unity in a nation. People are able to think positively about other people from different ethnicity.

Awareness of social problems
When you interact with people from a different background you are able to understand challenges that they face. You are therefore able to think of possible solutions to such problems.

There is no doubt therefore that studying in such universities makes you better in every aspect of life.

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Civilian Employment for Equal Opportunity Employment

equal opportunity

It’s difficult to find an employer that offers true equal opportunity employment. Even though there are many laws in effect to try to prevent prejudiced and judgement in the workplace, it still happens in many companies because of the lack of supervision. This is especially true for smaller companies that don’t have anybody to monitor this. People should all be treated the same no matter what religion, sex, ethnicity, race, disability, or sexual orientation that they may have. Jobs should go to the most qualified person regardless of any of these attributes.

If you’re looking for employment with equal opportunity, consider working as a military civilian or for the Department of the Army as a civilian. There are tons of openings for civilians to work with the military and they pay very well and have good benefits. With your skill set, you are very likely to find a job that will be perfect for you. The Department of the Army has a Diversity and Leadership division to ensure equal opportunities for all. For more information in gaining employment as a civilian, visit Civilian Employment is a website dedicated to helping those find employment as a military civilian and includes great information for those transitioning to civilians as well as advice for job preparation and resume/CV building.

Wholesale Gold Group For Great Investments

Wholesale Gold Group For Great Investments


The value of gold is still on the rise making it a great, safe investment if done right.  With the uncertainty of the United States dollar and it’s decline, gold and silver are often a much better investment.  Throughout history gold has always remained one of the safest investments. If you’re looking for a good place to make a great investment, check out Wholesale Gold Group.


The company offers plenty of information on their website to learn everything you could want to know about gold and silver.  They also offer a free investment kit that informs you about all of the ins and outs of investing in precious metals and advice about safe, smart ways to invest.


Wholesale Gold Group has many selections of gold and silver to choose from at extremely low prices.  You can often purchase the gold for as low as 1% above dealer price which makes it one of the best places to purchase from.  The company offers many choices of coins, bars, and dollars.  The site also provides you with information and all of the tools necessary to create or add gold into an IRA.


With the incredibly low prices of this company and all of the education they provide, it proves to be one of the leading dealers in the nation.  If you are looking for a great company to make good investments with, check it out!

Studies Show More African American interest in Discount Life Insurance Policies

Studies Show More African American interest in Discount Life Insurance Policies

It’s important to do your research and educate yourself as an African American while searching for discount life insurance policies.  Regardless of race, life insurance is a good idea to obtain if possible.  Life Insurance is generally purchased for paying debts and replacing income for your family if you pass away.  It can also pay for funeral and burial fees.  If you have debt, your spouse or heirs are likely to take the hit and it could be disasterous for their credit.

In earlier times, African Americans were only offered “Burial Insurance” to cover the cost of their funerals at higher premiums than Caucasians that received more benefits.  While many African Americans still have the “Burial Insurance” mentality, many more are becoming educated about the multiple benefits available with modern policies that are available to them.  Studies show that African Americans value life insurance more than other races.  A recent study by two large insurance companies shows that 76% of African Americans are likely to purchase health insurance while only 62% of whites and 54% of Hispanics are likely to purchase.  Insurance companies are seeing the new African American interest trends and are starting to offer education and advice on life insurance, as well as discount life insurance policies for African Americans.

Race, Video and Dialogue

Since the Kerner Commission report in 1968, every analysis of problems in American race relations has pointed a finger at the media. The criticisms reflect our awareness that, in many ways, the media shapes our understanding of race relations as much as our direct experiences do. Notwithstanding the end of de jure segregation, most people have limited contact with people of other races and many people still live and work in homogeneous settings.

Cultural Filters

In general, our perceptions and interpretations are influenced by events filtered through our cultural experiences. These cultural filters develop from racial and ethnic background, as well as gender, sexual orientation, age, economic status, religion and geography. For the most part, we are unaware of these cultural filters and would be hard pressed to explain where we developed our notions of foods that taste good, music we enjoy, people with whom we feel comfortable and those who make us uneasy. Yet we act on these judgments daily.

Cultural filters are laden with personal values. We not only perceive the world differently from others, we presume that our perception is the most valid one. This presumption can easily lead to cross-cultural misunderstandings and racial conflict. Therefore, the first step to cross-cultural understanding is to become aware of our cultural filters. Video can play a role in attaining that goal. Several videos in this package illustrate how racial conflicts based on cultural filters emerge in the course of dialogue: The Color of Fear, Facing Racismand Skin Deep. In Whose Honor?,which deals with the use of Native American mascots for sports teams, provides a striking example of how cultural filters prevent one group from understanding the offense and anguish their actions cause another group. We also must appreciate the diversity and conflict that exists not only between groups but also within a group. Several videos explore the complexities of self-perception: Black is…Black Ain’t, Hair Pieceand A Question of Color.

The media is also shaped by the cultural filters of the people and institutions that create it. Video can play a role, but it is simply a tool and not a panacea. The independent videos in this package represent points of view and topics that generally do not appear in mass media. But their usefulness depends upon understanding the way in which their images reflect their makers’ opinions.

Video and Dialogue

We approach the question of race and dialogue from the perspective and practice of conflict resolution, which helps people create their own solutions to disputes. With a mediator’ s assistance, people who begin with positions in striking opposition to each other can identify areas in which their interests overlap. When this happens, they can better appreciate the perspectives of those with whom they have disagreed. At its most successful, conflict resolution transforms the relationship between adversaries to one in which the two sides can work together collaboratively to resolve conflicts previously seen as beyond resolution. Although conflict resolution itself works best with a trained specialist as mediator, its underlying principles can be applied to a variety of settings — community meetings, classrooms, the workplace — which are explored in the next section. Below we offer some thoughts on how these principles dovetail with the use of video in fostering a dialogue around issues of race and racial conflict.

Increasingly, diversity trainers, scholars, librarians and facilitators are using video as a way to encourage people to talk about their perceptions and assumptions about one another. Video provides participants with a common experience against which they can better define and understand their own differences. Overall, video offers four possibilities that fit perfectly with the sensibility of dispute resolution: empathy, expression, critical distance and reframing the problem.

• Empathy. The chances of success increase enormously if the parties can see the conflict from the other’ s perspective. However, the dynamics of face-to-face confrontation often work against empathy. Video frees people from the need to respond directly to the other person’ s perspective, encouraging a feeling of empathy otherwise almost impossible to accomplish. Also, video can transcend barriers created by strong group identification by pointing out similarity even within the context of difference.

• Expression. Misunderstandings brought on by racial differences tap into our deepest fears, hurts and anger. Most people cannot face the intensity of these feelings in personal confrontations, especially when they occur as part of an initial discussion. However, people can accept intensity of expression in a video. Videos also let us express feelings that we may have been afraid to express in a discussion. But these feelings are a part of the fabric of racial tensions and conflicts.

• Critical distance. People find it almost as difficult to change their own perspective as to take on someone else’ s. The need both to express and defend a position leaves little room for critical self-reflection. Anyone who has used video instruction to teach or learn how to play a sport knows how powerful it can be. In the same way that a skilled mediator can create a space in which to examine one’ s own position critically, free from the obligations of winning or defending, a video permits individuals or groups to see how others see them rather than how they want to see themselves.

• Reframing the problem. Mediation as discussion always seeks change. Even if differences cannot be resolved, participants should come away with a more accurate understanding of the nature of their differences and an appreciation of the other’ s perspective. We encourage disputants to frame their understanding of a conflict in a way that incorporates the perspectives and interests of all parties. Obviously, a video can show the perspective of one person or group. But the best video captures something truthful and moving about the views of all characters. A skilled facilitator can help us see the intertwining perspectives taken in the video and the way a problem was framed.

Although the potential for using video to encourage understanding is great, so too are the risks. Used improperly, a video can close off discussion as much as open it up. If a facilitator forgets that the video has taken a point of view and uses the work to represent truth, he denies the opportunity for an open discussion. Images are also evocative; a video might release feelings so intimate and powerful that they push participants either to withdraw from or to heighten the conflict.

A skilled mediator knows the importance of reframing an especially powerful statement made by one party in a dispute. The same holds when you use videos; do not assume that they speak for themselves or that all viewers see them in the same way. For example, The Color of Fear should not be allowed to stand on its own in a discussion of race relations or it will reproduce the distorted dynamics of miscommunication, guilt and blame that it captures so powerfully. Discussion leaders must help participants recognize how a point of view can emphasize, focus, omit and distort. A cinema classic such as Rashomon can be effective for introducing the notion of point of view and preparing participants to see images with a critical eye. But almost any documentary can be used to the same effect by noting the ways in which opposing points of view are presented, both at the level of argumentation (competing claims) and editing (juxtaposition of statements with images).

Certainly video can be an effective catalyst in an effort to discuss race and racial conflict. Any hope of resolution depends on getting to the heart of a conflict. Video helps cut through the many barriers to honesty when dealing with issues as charged as race relations.

Race Matters, Media Matters

If race is something about which we dare not speak in polite social company, the same cannot be said of the viewing of race.
Patricia J. Williams 1

Race is a paradox. Its signs appear everywhere in our media culture, while the profound ways in which race factors into the “distribution of sadness” remain hidden from view.2 Thirty years ago, the Kerner Commission reported that “our nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white — separate and unequal.”3 Today, notwithstanding the resulting affirmative action programs, African — American and Latino families are three times more likely to live below the poverty line than whites, and their median income is about 55 percent that of their white counterparts.4 Nor does education narrow the earnings gap, suggesting something else as the determining factor.5

Clearly, things have improved since the days of de jure segregation. Yet, in a 1990 Gallup poll, the “average” American thought that the U.S. population was 32 percent Black, 21 percent Hispanic, and 18 percent Jewish.6 In other words, according to this view, Anglo-Americans — not to mention Native and Asian-Americans — accounted for no more than 29 percent of the “imagined community” of the nation.7 In fact, the actual figure was precisely the opposite! Ironically, the demographic and electoral majority imagined itself to be a minority.

Two things explain this misperception. First, most Americans continue to live in racially segregated environments. Second, the mass media, which represent our major source of information about the world outside our immediate and segregated lives, play the “race card” in consequential ways. Nonwhite racial groups remain underrepresented in the mass media — both in terms of employment and portrayals — but they have also been equated with violent crime across the programming spectrum, from entertainment to the nightly news.8 So the little visibility that nonwhites receive nevertheless plays into very basic fears about personal security. Even though a black or Latino actor may now play a homicide detective as often as a violent criminal, the association of race with crime remains unchallenged.

The mass media do not cause racism, of course, but neither do they offer a value-free medium for the exchange of ideas and information. They are marketplaces and we are both their consumers and a product sold to advertisers. But in addition, as noted by Marshall McLuhan in the 1960s: “The medium is the message.”9 In any modern society, four basic infrastructures allow a nation to function as a social, political and economic entity: telecommunications, transportation, energy utilities and the system of currency exchange. Each is a medium not only for moving some value across space, but also for defining that space in societal terms. Because these infrastructures are essential modes for trade and discourse, “infrastructure industries are always the focus of direct state intervention, whether by way of promotion, subsidy, or regulation.”10 Furthermore, as Robert Britt Horwitz explains, “Telecommunications is a peculiar infrastructure because it is a primary medium for the circulation of ideas and information, a realm where, in principle, political life can be discussed openly and in accordance with standards of critical reason.”11 What is the message, then, if certain racial groups are excluded from that medium or from the peculiar infrastructure of our democracy?

The message is that race defines the boundaries for our sense of nation. Since race is almost never used in the media to refer to “whites” and “Americans,” it becomes understood as a deviation from both whiteness and citizenship. Since race is used to refer to crime and criminals (with the notable exceptions of white-collar crime and serial murder, which are more racially exclusive, albeit for white men), it becomes a defining feature of that which is against the law. Since race has been one of the few ways in which we talk about class in the United States, affirmative action became coded as an isolated form of privilege rather than as a compromised response to centuries of continuing white privilege.12 As George Lipsitz demonstrates, there is a possessive investment in whiteness.13

All in all, the message from such a racially exclusive medium is one in which race is seen as an active and detrimental force in our society. Race becomes synonymous with crisis. Little wonder, then, that “Americans” felt that nonwhite racial groups made up 71 percent of the population amid a major downturn in the national economy.

But what is race? The most accurate answer is also the least satisfying: “an unstable and ‘decentered’ complex of social meanings constantly being transformed by political struggle.”14 In other words, race is not an innate truth about the human body and mind. Instead, it is a concept that participates in ongoing social, political and economic forces; as such, its meaning changes over time. Race has been used to codify various social relations on the basis of perceived biological differences: nationality (the German race), immigration policies (the Chinese Exclusion Act), citizenship (before universal suffrage), property relations (from slave versus master to redlining), intellectual capacity (mostly directed at education policy) and sex, marriage and reproduction (miscegenation and racial classification laws). Over the past four decades, however, science has replaced the concept of race with population genetics. Biological attributes are not “fixed and discrete” in the way implied by the concept of race; significantly more genetic variation occurs within than between populations, racial or otherwise.15 In short, while the biological fact of human variation remains, there is no such thing as racial purity, nor can science explain variations in human behavior across populations by means of genetic, let alone racial, differences. Such variations are cultural, reflecting a complex world very much of our own making, one in which race is less a scientific object than a contentious category within the economy, the law, the political representation system, social movements and popular culture.16

To be sure, “culture” is as fuzzy and mercurial a concept as “race.” Therefore, we must forgo answers, and begin the process of asking questions about the world beyond our immediate experience and media culture. Independent film and video offer an important alternative to the mass media, both in terms of point of view and social function. Many independent producers started on local public-affairs series in the late 1960s and early 1970s. That period saw a vibrant and broad-based media reform movement aimed at making commercial television follow its legal mandate to serve the public interest of local communities. As a result, minority public affairs series served as the birthplace and training ground for black, Latino, Asian-American and Native American “cinemas.” By the end of the decade, however, with the rise of deregulation, the producers of these films found themselves working as “independents,” offering their films to the programming margins of public television. Against great odds, these producers continue to produce new work, although distribution remains difficult. Deregulation, instead of democratizing commercial television, gave rise to a handful of global media conglomerates, which integrate broadcasting with cable, satellite service, film studios, video rental chains, publishing, music recording, sports teams, retail stores and theme parks. These conglomerates have developed joint ventures and equity interests with each other as well as with finance, computer and telecommunications corporations.17 For all the hype about the democratizing effect of the deregulation and digital revolutions, one is hard pressed to find much diversity coursing through the medium, let alone new models for social equity and intercultural dialogue.

Independent film and video can serve as an important first step in reducing our dependence on global media for what we know about the world. But it is only a first step when it comes to race, racism and racial conflict. We must do more than just view race; we must put ourselves into the picture, in large part by stepping outside our everyday life. Developers of the Viewing Race Project believe in the efficacy of dialogues across difference. The following essays provide practical information about using independent video to stimulate discussions on race. They stress that we cannot look for a quick fix, but must focus instead on uncovering the experiences, assumptions and points of view that contribute to understanding race.

Before we can resolve racial conflicts, we must understand them. The endings of two documentaries exemplify this difficult and painful fact: Renee Tajima-Peña and Christine Choy’s Who Killed Vincent Chin? (1988) and Spike Lee’s 4 Little Girls (1997). The films both close with a scene of a mother who has lost her child to racial violence. These powerful images create an almost unbearable empathy without sentimentality. In the former, Vincent Chin’s mother responds to the acquittal of her son’s killer with disbelief that such a thing could happen in her country. The camera zooms in on her hand, clenched tighter and tighter, like a heart about to disappear. In the latter, Spike Lee interviews the mother of one of four girls killed in a church bombing in Atlanta, Georgia, in September 1963. Now, 35 years later, the mother talks about the process of letting go of her anger and opening up to compassion. In her gentle, yet slightly playful dialogue, we see both the difficulty and the possibility of living in a better world.

The videos and ideas featured in this Web site provide one avenue by which to pursue better understanding of racial conflict, cultural difference and intercultural dialogue. Through screenings and discussions, participants can begin to learn and appreciate the complex ways in which we are both different and the same. This Web site explores several practical ways in which the videos can be used to facilitate such a process in the classroom, workplace, community center and elsewhere. But the most important part will be you who use these tools to contribute to a discussion that can bridge our differences by understanding them.

1 Patricia J. Williams, Seeing a Color — Blind Future: The Paradox of Race (New York: The Noonday Press, 1997), p. 17.

2 I borrow the phrase “distribution of sadness” from Carlos G. Velez-Ibanez, Border Visions: Mexican Cultures of the Southwest United States (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1996), see especially chapter five. The phrase refers to the way in which some racial groups are disproportionately represented among those people facing poverty, violence, crime and other social ills.

3 Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, Otto Kerner, Chairman (New York: Bantam Books, 1968).

4 Alissa J. Rubin, “Racial Divide Widens, Study Says,” Los Angeles Times, March 1, 1998, sec. A, p. 18.

5 Shawn Hubler and Stuart Silverstein, “Education Doesn’t Narrow Earnings Gap for Minorities,” Los Angeles Times, January 10, 1993, sec. A, pp. 1, 14-15.

6 George Gallup, Jr. and Dr. Frank Newport, “Americans Show Generally Low ‘Census I.Q.’,” The Sunday Oklahoman, March 25, 1990, sec. A, p. 15.

7 For a very readable and useful account of the modern nation-state as an “imagined community,” see Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, rev. ed. (London: Verso, 1991 [1983]).

8 The Directors Guild of America, Writers Guild of America and the Screen Actors Guild release annual reports on minority employment. The one area where there has been significant improvement over the past three decades is in acting roles for television commercials. See also Sally Steenland, Unequal Picture: Black, Hispanic, Asian and Native American Characters on Television (Washington, D.C.: National Commission on Working Women of Wider Opportunities for Women, August 1989).

9 See Marshall McLuhan, Understanding the Media: The Extensions of Man (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1994 [1964]).

10 Robert Britt Horwitz, The Irony of Regulatory Reform: The Deregulation of American Telecommunications (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), p. 12.

11 Ibid., p. 14.

12 See John David Skretney’s comprehensive account of the development of affirmative action, The Ironies of Affirmative Action: Politics, Culture, and Justice in America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996).

13 George Lipsitz, The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White People Profit from Identity Politics (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998).

14 Michael Omi and Howard Winant, Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1980s (New York: Routledge, 1986), p. 68. Emphasis in the original.

15 Quoted phrase from Sandra Harding, ed., The “Racial” Economy of Science: Toward a Democratic Future (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993), p. 8. See, in the same anthology, Frank B. Livingstone, “On the Nonexistence of Human Races,” pp. 133-141. For a useful popular discussion of the science of race, see the special issue of Discover in November 1994. The classic text on race, racism and biological determinism is Stephen Jay Gould, The Mismeasure of Man, rev. ed. (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1996 [1981])

16 See Kimberle Crenshaw et al., ed., Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings That Formed the Movement (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1995).

17 For an overview, see Edward S. Herman and Robert W. McChesney, The Global Media: The New Missionaries of Corporate Capitalism (London: Cassell, 1997).